Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates

Phosphates, Arsenates, and Vanadates

Wavelite was named in 1805 for William Wavell (1750-1829), a physician in Devonshire, England, who discovered the mineral. It is a secondary mineral found in low grade metamorphic rocks. It usually found as radiating "starburst" clusters of green fibrous crystals.

Vivianite was named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1817 after John Henry Vivian, an English politician, mine owner, and mineralogist living in Truro, Cornwall, and discoverer of the mineral. When fresh, the mineral may be colorless, but once exposed, it will change to deep blue to deep bluish-green prismatic to flattened crystals.

The name of this mineral reflects its vanadium content. It is a rare secondary mineral found in the oxidized portion of lead veins. It was first discovered by Señor A.M. del Rio (1764-1849), a professor at the School of Mines of Mexico, Zimapan, before the element vanadium was discovered in 1830.

Easily recognized by its color, turquoise is harder than chrysocolla, the only common mineral which it resembles. It is used as a gemstone and is cut in round or oval forms. Named in antiquity from the French turquoise meaning "Turkish," the original material from the mountains of Iran found its way to Europe through Turkey.

Discovered in 1834, this mineral occurs in granite pegmatites. The name is derived from the Greek for "threefold” plus "family" because it was thought to contain three cations (Fe, Li, Mn).

A secondary lead mineral found in the oxidized zones of lead deposits, this mineral is characterized by its crystal form, high luster, and high specific gravity. The name is derived from two Greek words meaning "fire" and "form" in allusion to the apparent crystalline form it assumes on cooling from fusion.

A widely distributed mineral as an accessory in granitic igneous rocks, gneissic metamorphic rocks, and in the detrital sands derived from them. It is concentrated in sands because of its resistance to chemical attack and its high specific gravity. The chief source of thorium oxide, this mineral was derived from a Greek word meaning "to be solitary," in allusion to the rarity of the mineral.

A rare mineral found in high-grade quartz-rich metamorphic rock and in pegmatites. This mineral was discovered in 1795, and its name is derived from an Arabic word meaning "heaven," in allusion to the color of the mineral. It is a minor gemstone.

The association of this mineral with other cobalt minerals and its pink color are usually sufficient to distinguish it from all other minerals. It occurs as a secondary mineral in the oxidation zone of some Ni-C0-As mineral deposits but has no economic importance. It is used as a guide to other cobalt minerals and associated native silver. It was named in 1832 by Francois Sulpice Beaudant from the Greek word for “red”.

This mineral is characterized by its yellow color. It occurs in Colorado Plateau-type uranium deposits near playas and is an ore of both vanadium and uranium. Discovered in 1899, it was named after Marie-Aldophe Carnot (1839-1920), a French mining engineer and chemist.