Discovered in 1928 in Columbia (a name for America), this mineral occurs in granitic rocks and pegmatites. It is a source of the rare earth element niobium, which is used in alloys in weldable high-speed steels, stainless steels, and alloys resistant to high temperatures.

Chrysoberyl is a rare mineral that occurs in granitic rocks and pegmatites and in mica schists. Used as a gemstone, the varieties, alexandrite and cat's eye, are highly prized. The name comes from the Greek meaning “golden” and beryl, in allusion to the color. It was discovered in Brazil in 1789.

First discovered in 1856, this mineral was named after Rudolf von Carnall (1804-1874), a Prussian mining engineer. It is found in saline marine deposits by action of high potash fluids such as deposits in Stassfurt, Germany and eastern New Mexico. It is a source of potassium and magnesium.

Named after the type locality, in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, this mineral is a secondary copper mineral formed through the oxidation of other copper minerals, especially in arid, saline conditions.

Sulfur can be easily identified by its yellow color and its "rotten egg" smell when burned. It can be found at or near crater rims of active volcanoes and is frequently associated with the cap rock of salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico. It is used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid as fertilizers, insecticides and explosives, as well as in paper manufacture.